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Regulatory authorities in producing countries set standards for measurement accuracy of produced hydrocarbons, where such measurements affect taxes or royalties to the government.
A barrel can technically be used to specify any volume. Since the actual nature of the fluids being measured varies along the stream, sometimes qualifiers are used to clarify what is being specified.
In the oil field, it is often important to differentiate between rates of production of fluids, which may be a mix of oil and water, and rates of production of the oil itself.
In other circumstances, it can be important to include gas in production and consumption figures. But when necessary, such volume is converted to a volume of oil of equivalent enthalpy of combustion.
Production and consumption using this analogue is stated in barrels of oil equivalent per day boed. In the case of water injection wells, in the United States it is common to refer to the injectivity rate in barrels of water per day bwd.
In general, water injection rates will be stated in the same units as oil production rates, since the usual objective is to replace the volume of oil produced with a similar volume of water to maintain reservoir pressure.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see BBL disambiguation. English wine cask units and English brewery cask units.
For the cactus known as the "blue barrel cactus", see Echinocactus horizonthalonius. The discussion page may contain suggestions.
The New shorter Oxford English dictionary on historical principles. Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. The Story of Man and Measurement.
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In contrast, one tonne of crude oil might occupy gallons 6. The measurement of an "oil barrel" originated in the early Pennsylvania oil fields.
The Drake Well , the first oil well in the US, was drilled in Pennsylvania in , and an oil boom followed in the s. When oil production began, there was no standard container for oil, so oil and petroleum products were stored and transported in barrels of different shapes and sizes.
Some of these barrels would originally have been used for other products, such as beer, fish, molasses or turpentine. The gallon whiskey barrel was the most common size used by early oil producers, since they were readily available at the time.
Around , early oil producers in Pennsylvania came to the conclusion that shipping oil in a variety of different containers was causing buyer distrust.
They decided they needed a standard unit of measure to convince buyers that they were getting a fair volume for their money, and settled on the standard wine tierce which was two gallons larger than the standard whisky barrel.
The Weekly Register , an Oil City, Pennsylvania newspaper, stated on August 31, that "the oil producers have issued the following circular: Whereas, It is conceded by all producers of crude petroleum on Oil Creek that the present system of selling crude oil by the barrel, without regard to the size, is injurious to the oil trade, alike to the buyer and seller, as buyers, with an ordinary sized barrel cannot compete with those with large ones.
We, therefore, mutually agree and bind ourselves that from this date we will sell no crude by the barrel or package, but by the gallon only.
An allowance of two gallons will be made on the gauge of each and every 40 gallons in favor of the buyer. By , the standard oil barrel was firmly established as 42 US gallons.
Geological Survey and the U. The casino uksh of an "oil barrel" originated in the early Pennsylvania oil fields. In general, water injection rates will be stated in the same units as oil production rates, since the usual objective is to replace the volume of oil produced with a similar book of ra slot gratis online of water to maintain reservoir pressure.
Ansvarlig spill Spinit, the US-gallon oil barrel is a unit of measure, and is online casino real money free longer a physical container used to transport crude oil, as most petroleum is moved in pipelines or oil tankers.
International commodity exchanges will often set an arbitrary conversion Beste Spielothek in Scheiterboden finden for benchmark crude oils for financial accounting Beste Spielothek in Steegen finden.
By custom had made the gallon watertight tierce a standard container for shipping eel, salmon, herring, molasses, wine, whale oil and many other commodities in the English colonies.
Retrieved from " https: Outside the United Beste Spielothek in Elberberg finden, volumes of oil are usually reported in cubic metres m 3 instead of oil barrels.
The government is now piloting Vocational Meister Schools in which workplace training is an important part of the programme.
Around half of all vocational high schools are private. Private and public schools operate according to similar rules; for example, they charge the same fees for high school education, with an exemption for poorer families.
The number of students in vocational high schools has decreased, from about half of students in down to about one-quarter today. To make vocational high schools more attractive, in April the Korean government changed the name of vocational high schools into professional high schools.
With the change of the name the government also facilitated the entry of vocational high school graduates to colleges and universities.
At tertiary level, vocational education and training is provided in junior colleges two- and three-year programmes and at polytechnic colleges.
Education at junior colleges and in two-year programmes in polytechnic colleges leads to an Industrial associate degree. Polytechnics also provide one-year programmes for craftsmen and master craftsmen and short programmes for employed workers.
The requirements for admission to these institutions are in principle the same as those in the rest of tertiary sector on the basis of the College Scholastic Aptitude Test but candidates with vocational qualifications are given priority in the admission process.
Fees charged by private colleges are approximately twice those of public institutions. Polytechnic colleges are state-run institutions under the responsibility of the Ministry of Labour; government funding keeps student fees much lower than those charged by other tertiary institutions.
Skills training are no longer depicted as second-class education in Malaysia. There are numerous vocational education centres here including vocational schools high schools to train skilled students , technic schools high schools to train future engineers and vocational colleges all of them under the Ministry of Education.
In Mexico, both federal and state governments are responsible for the administration of vocational education. Federal schools are funded by the federal budget, in addition to their own funding sources.
Compulsory education including primary and lower secondary education finishes at the age of 15 and about half of those aged to are enrolled full-time or part-time in education.
All programmes at upper secondary level require the payment of a tuition fee. The upper secondary vocational education system in Mexico includes over a dozen subsystems administrative units within the Upper Secondary Education Undersecretariat of the Ministry of Public Education, responsible for vocational programmes which differ from each other to varying degrees in content, administration, and target group.
The large number of school types and corresponding administrative units within the Ministry of Public Education makes the institutional landscape of vocational education and training complex by international standards.
Vocational education and training provided under the Upper Secondary Education Undersecretariat includes three main types of programme:.
The programmes can be attended in either of two pathways. So in effect, students have a choice out of 32 trajectories, leading to over professional qualifications.
BBL-Apprentices usually receive a wage negotiated in collective agreements. Employers taking on these apprentices receive a subsidy in the form of a tax reduction on the wages of the apprentice.
The social partners participate actively in the development of policy. Its responsibility is to advise the Minister on the development of the national vocational education and training system, based on the full consensus of the constituent members the representative organisations of schools and of entrepreneurship and their centres of expertise.
The Centres of Expertices are linked to the four vocational education programmes provided in senior secondary VET on the content of VET programmes and on trends and future skill needs.
The unique element is that ITOs purchase training as well as set standards and aggregate industry opinion about skills in the labour market. Moreover, much of the training is generic.
This challenges the prevailing idea of vocational education and the standard layperson view that it focuses on apprenticeships.
Polytechnics, Private Training Establishments, Wananga and others also deliver vocational training, amongst other areas.
Nearly all those leaving lower secondary school enter upper secondary education, and around half follow one of nine vocational programmes. These programmes typically involve two years in school followed by two years of apprenticeship in a company.
The first year provides general education alongside introductory knowledge of the vocational area. During the second year, courses become more trade-specific.
Employers taking on apprentices receive a subsidy, equivalent to the cost of one year in school. Both apprenticeship and a third year of practical training in school lead to the same vocational qualifications.
Upper secondary VET graduates may go directly to Vocational Technical Colleges, while those who wish to enter university need to take a supplementary year of education.
The National Council for Vocational Education and Training advises the Minister on the development of the national vocational education and training system.
The Advisory Councils for Vocational Education and Training are linked to the nine vocational education programmes provided in upper secondary education and advise on the content of VET programmes and on trends and future skill needs.
The National Curriculum groups assist in deciding the contents of the vocational training within the specific occupations. Both forms of secondary education last three years, and are usually located in the same campus called Colegio.
After completing secondary education, one can enter to the universities. The NVQ framework consists of seven levels of instruction.
NVQ levels 1 to 4 are for craftsmen designation and successful candidates are issued with National certificates. NVQ levels 5 and 6 are Diploma level, whereas Level 7 is for degree equivalent qualification.
Training courses are provided by many institutions island wide. All training providers public and private must obtain institutional registration and course accreditation from the Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission TVEC.
In order to obtain registration institutions must satisfy specific criteria: Nearly all of those leaving compulsory schooling immediately enter upper secondary schools, and most complete their upper secondary education in three years.
Upper secondary education is divided into 13 vocationally oriented and 4 academic national programmes. Slightly more than half of all students follow vocational programmes.
All programmes offer broad general education and basic eligibility to continue studies at the post-secondary level.
A school reform extended vocational upper secondary programmes by one year, aligning them with three years of general upper secondary education, increasing their general education content, and making core subjects compulsory in all programmes.
The core subjects which occupy around one-third of total teaching time in both vocational and academic programmes include English, artistic activities, physical education and health, mathematics, natural science, social studies, Swedish or Swedish as a second language, and religious studies.
In addition to the core subjects, students pursue optional courses, subjects which are specific to each programme and a special project.
Schools are responsible for arranging workplace training and verifying its quality. Most municipalities have advisory bodies: The councils advise schools on matters such as provision of workplace training courses, equipment purchase and training of supervisors in APU.
The Swiss vocational education and training system VET is regarded by many international experts as the strongest in Europe. It results in one of the lowest youth unemployment rates in Europe.
Managers and the staff take pride in their young apprentices. Apprentices rotate between workplace, vocational school and industry training centers where they develop complementary practical skills relating to the occupation.
They spend the biggest amount of time at the workplace emphasizing the importance of on-the-job training. Rotation can be organised in different ways - either by switching places during the week or by allocating entire weeks to one place and form of learning.
The program can also start with most of the time devoted to in-school education and then gradually increase the share of in-company training.
In , more than half of the population aged 25—64 had a VET or PET qualification as their highest level of education. In addition, universities of applied sciences Fachhochschulen offer vocational education at tertiary A level.
Pathways enable people to shift from one part of the education system to another. Students in Turkey may choose vocational high schools after completing the 8-year-long compulsory primary and secondary education.
Vocational high school graduates may pursue two year-long polytechnics or may continue with a related tertiary degree.
Municipalities in Turkey also offer vocational training. The metropolitan municipality of Istanbul , the most populous city in Turkey, offers year long free vocational programs in a wide range of topics through ISMEK,  an umbrella organization formed under the municipality.
The initial idea was thought of in , and the school opened in The Education Act made provision for a Tripartite System of grammar schools , secondary technical schools and secondary modern schools , but by only 0.
Successive recent British Governments have made attempts to promote and expand vocational education. In the s, the Business And Technology Education Council was founded to confer further and higher education awards, particularly to further education colleges in the United Kingdom.
However, youth training was marginalised as the proportion of young people staying on in full-time education increased.
In , publicly funded Modern Apprenticeships were introduced to provide "quality training on a work-based educational route". Apprenticeships are increasingly recognised as the gold standard for work-based training.
There are four levels of apprenticeship available for those aged 16 and over:. Apprentices work towards work-based learning qualifications such as a Level 2 Competence Qualification, Functional Skills and, in most cases, a relevant knowledge-based qualification.
Apprentices work towards work-based learning such as a Level 3 Competence Qualification, Functional Skills and, in most cases, a relevant knowledgebased qualification.
They can take four years to complete. Apprentices work towards work-based learning qualifications such as a Level 4 and 5 Competence Qualification, Functional Skills and, in some cases, a knowledge-based qualification such as a Foundation Degree.
They can take between four and five years to complete, depending on the level at which an apprentice enrolls. The courses are designed in partnership with employers, with part-time study taking place at a university.
They can take between four and six years to complete, depending on the level of the course, and the level of entry. He offers insights into the study of the pedagogy of teachers of work-related programmes.
Especially, he investigates the complex issue of how teachers use their know-how in their delivery of work-related programmes.
This complexity surrounds the need for these deliverers to have the disciplinary and wider elements relating to knowledge of the relevant work practices, which involves the learning of the type of know-how and its application in their work practices.
The combination of these work know-how e. These pedagogic activities rely on different types of knowledge and experiences — pedagogic and work-related.
The theoretical framework uses, initially, a dual professionalism concept to review the literature sources of knowledge concerning the occupational pedagogy of teachers.
From a pedagogic delineation of knowledge, teaching knowledge may include knowledge of the relevant disciplines Becher ; Bernstein ; Smeby such as psychology and sociology e.
Teaching knowledge may be explicit or tacit Shulman ; Polanyi ; Nonaka and Takeuchi ; Verloop et al. Knowledge concerning occupational practices i.
This occupational knowledge base also includes knowledge of procedures, skills e. This knowledge base is a wider spectrum than a pedagogic one.
These two forms of knowledge — pedagogic and occupational — may be applied through the processes of recontextualization Bernstein ; van Oers ; Barnett , Evans et al.
The knowledge forms can be changed through selecting, relocating and refocusing aspects when used in another setting. In particular, the recontextualization processes regarding content relating to specifications of a programme , pedagogic relating to teaching activities , occupational relating to working activities , and work relating to the systems and processes that are specific to a workplace or organisation.
There are also relevant concepts that offer insights to the application of teaching and occupational know-how. These include knowledgeable practice Evans , practice architecture Kemmis and Green , and Systems 1 and 2 Kahneman For a detailed description of the theoretical framework, please refer to Chapter 4 in Teachers and Teaching in Vocational and Professional Education Loo, The conceptual framework of the occupational pedagogy of teachers is illustrated on page 50 Loo The analysed empirical data is discussed in the separate sections of TVET, higher and professional education courses, five case studies of fashion and textiles, airline industry, dental hygiene, clinical training in emergency medicine and doctors, and a comparison chapter.
The observations from this investigation include Loo IAR process provides a critical understanding of how the modified teaching, occupational and work capacities are combined to inform the application of appropriate teaching strategies to specific pedagogic settings 5.